Bezier Curves Library - 2d and 3d, Linear, Quadratic, and Cubic

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I think i found a bug with GLBasic math processing....but i cant prove it.
Perhaps its a flaw in Beziers Formula, although I highly doubt this is the case.
The 1st 2nd and 3rd degree formulas, which are simply subsequent increments in the math, all work great.
But when i try to increment the formula to the 4th degree, something very wrong happens.
When i set all the control masses to be parallel, the curve should be perfectly flat.
However, the result is unexpected....the flat curve, is arc shaped!

If anyone is feeling up for some math, i would really appreciate it if you can review and fix this code.
The correct result here should be a flat line, the blue line and the grey line should match each other.
Here is a working sample of the 4th degree..this i cant solve any further:

Code (glbasic) Select
//! --------------------------------- //
//! Project: Bezier Curve - problem with quartic curve.


GLOBAL mb1,mb2
Grey = RGB( 128 , 128 , 128 )
Lime = RGB( 0 , 255 , 0 )
Red  = RGB( 255 , 0 , 0 )
Blue = RGB(0,0,255)
White= RGB(255,255,255)

// start point
Px0 = 100
Py0 = 400

// control point
Px1 = 200
Py1 = 400

// control point
Px2 = 300
Py2 = 400

// control point
Px3 = 400
Py3 = 400

// end point
Px4 = 500
Py4 = 400

//total num of points from start to end of the bezier

// -------------------------------------------------- //

MOUSESTATE Px2,Py2,mb1,mb2 //change the second control point position with mouse

//Draw imaginary control lines:
DRAWLINE Px0 , Py0 , Px1 , Py1 , Grey
DRAWLINE Px1 , Py1 , Px2 , Py2 , Grey
DRAWLINE Px2 , Py2 , Px3 , Py3 , Grey
DRAWLINE Px3 , Py3 , Px4 , Py4 , Grey
PRINT "C0",Px0,Py0+20
PRINT "C1",Px1,Py1+20
PRINT "C2",Px2,Py2+20
PRINT "C3",Px3,Py3+20
PRINT "C4",Px4,Py4+20

//Quartic Bezier Curve:

QuarticBezier2d( Px0,Py0 , Px1,Py1 , Px2,Py2, Px3,Py3, Px4,Py4, NumPointsOnCurve )// calculate the points

FOR PointIndex = 0 TO NumPointsOnCurve - 2 // Use the bezier point array TO draw the curve: -2 because we call last one in loop(B2)
B1x = QuarticBezierArray2d[ PointIndex ][ 0 ] //line segment, start x
B1y = QuarticBezierArray2d[ PointIndex ][ 1 ] //line segment, start y
B2x = QuarticBezierArray2d[ PointIndex + 1 ][ 0 ] //line segment, end x
B2y = QuarticBezierArray2d[ PointIndex + 1 ][ 1 ] //line segment, end y
DRAWLINE B1x , B1y , B2x , B2y , Blue

FPS( 500 , 10 , TRUE )


FUNCTION QuarticBezier2d: P0x , P0y , P1x , P1y , P2x , P2y , P3x , P3y , P4x , P4y , NumPoints
DIM QuarticBezierArray2d[ NumPoints ][ 2 ]

Segment = 1.0 / ( NumPoints - 1.0 )
Point = 0

//first vector
QuarticBezierArray2d[ Point ][ 0 ] = P0x
QuarticBezierArray2d[ Point ][ 1 ] = P0y

//middle vectors
FOR t0 = Segment TO 1.0 STEP Segment

t1 = 1.0 - t0
t2 = POW( t1 , 2 )
t3 = POW( t1 , 3 )
t4 = POW( t1 , 4 )

s1 = t0 * 1.0
s2 = POW( s1 , 2 )
s3 = POW( s1 , 3 )
s4 = POW( s1 , 4 )

B0 = t4 * P0x
B1 = 4.0 * t3 * s1 * P1x
B2 = 4.0 * t2 * s2 * P2x
B3 = 4.0 * t1 * s3 * P3x
B4 = s4 * P4x
X  = B0 + B1 + B2 + B3 + B4

B0 = t4 * P0y
B1 = 4.0 * t3 * s1 * P1y
B2 = 4.0 * t2 * s2 * P2y
B3 = 4.0 * t1 * s3 * P3y
B4 = s4 * P4y
Y  = B0 + B1 + B2 + B3 + B4

Point = Point + 1
QuarticBezierArray2d[ Point ][ 0 ] = X
QuarticBezierArray2d[ Point ][ 1 ] = Y


//last vector
QuarticBezierArray2d[ NumPoints - 1 ][ 0 ] = P4x
QuarticBezierArray2d[ NumPoints - 1 ][ 1 ] = P4y



STATIC TimeBuffer,FrameCount, FPSValue
LOCAL FrameTime
FrameTime=GETTIMER(); TimeBuffer=TimeBuffer+FrameTime; FrameCount=FrameCount+1
IF TimeBuffer>999; TimeBuffer=TimeBuffer-1000; FPSVALUE=FrameCount; FrameCount=0; ENDIF

Bing ChatGpt is pretty smart :O


Ahh that is a great page!
This is exactly what i needed thank you.
This formula below is the 4th degree curve function.
B(t)=(1-t)4P1 + 4t(1-t)3P2 + 6t2(1-t)2P3 + 4t3(1-t)P4 + t4P5

As for opengl handling it, i dont know how, and I dont have time to study it.

also, a reason to use this set is for creating lookup tables for arcs etc, for either planar or space coordinates.

Btw i have tested the planar version for quartic 2d array(screenshot below), i will also make it work in a 3d function.
Im going to keep looking around for the quintic formula.

[attachment deleted by admin]
Bing ChatGpt is pretty smart :O


Quote from: Ocean on 2010-Apr-02
realise that this is an extremely funny statement, don't you?  You don't have time to study how OpenGL could be of service, yet you do take the time to re-implement what is there already.  I guess a lot of software came to be that way...  Thank you for putting a smile on my face :)

Heh yeah very funny. Im laughing..on the inside.
Opengl automatically will calculate this formula, for 3 dimensions not less, and that is expensive, resource-wise.
My function set will allow you to choose, 1 2 or 3 dimensional calculation.

Because of the way i will finish this lib, in some cases, it might prove to be faster than opengl.
Additionally to the prexisting lib, I will be building a set for each degree to calculate in 1 dimension.
So, this would be something like this: Linear_Bezier_Curve_1d() ... Quadra... etc

The reasoning for a 1d lib would actually be an advantage, because the amount of calculations will be almost half of what the 2d calls for in resources. I had a few ideas for using bezier in 1d, and it should prove useful to many.
Think about that, 1d, you can have a line across the screen with many segments,
which would only be affected by the bezier is Y dimension, or X....
This could be VERY handy in making 3d bezier surfaces affecting only the Y dimension.

So the theory is, GLBasic can run a 1 dimensional bezier calculation faster than opengl, simply because opengl automatically calculates 3 dimensions(2 too many).

i was testing the algorithms, and found you can interpolate through the control points by altering the inputs to the function.
Just update the control point inputs with new positioning info according to tensions and constraints(do a check against the magnitude distance for control handles, versus a fixed vertex array index), before calling the function.

example. if the line is a quadratic, and it is 10 points..
You can check the magnitude distance of the control point, and the 5th index position in the array.
This will be the center point which you are testing, to maintain some sort of automatic movement of the control point.
From here you make a constraint.....for instance, if magnitude of the 5th point is greater than 100 away from the control point, then move the control point input data to be closer to the 5th point.

I was able to create rigid animated lines, and not-so-rigid lines, which makes them act like a spring or a rubber band.
Bing ChatGpt is pretty smart :O


Found quintic in some code on the i convert it into general format...i will add quintic now also.

B(t)=(1-t)5P1 + 5t(1-t)4P2 + 10t2(1-t)3P3 + 10t3(1-t)2P4 + 5t4(1-t)P5+ t5P6

Bing ChatGpt is pretty smart :O


Check out my quintic test, you can download from this message:

[attachment deleted by admin]
Bing ChatGpt is pretty smart :O